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    Parts List of E Rickshaw... 1. Differential CY 2. Alloy wheel type 1 3. Alloy wheel type 2 4. Motor CY 5. Yufeng motor 850 wat 6. Yufeng motor 1000wat 7. Motor 1280 wat 8. Adjustable rod 9. Adjustable rod pin 10. Back horn 11. Big light normal 12. Big light appy LED 13. Back light round 14. Back light deeginer 15. Front light I CAT 16. Front light deginer 17. Back indicator 18. Break rod big 19. Break spring big 20. Break spring small 21. Back rim 300-12 22. Back rim 300-14 23. Back rim 400-12 24. Back rim 3-75-16 25. Rear axle 26. Bhogli front axle 27. Break sho small 28. Break sho big 29. Controller 24 tube silver 30. Controller 24 tube black 31. Controller 18 tube 32. Controller 36 tube 33. Converter 10amp 34. Converter I CAT with fuse 2 tube ( like controller ) 35. Charging socket ( +-) 36. Disk break deffenser 33’ 37. Disk break defenser 35” 38. Difenser 160 no ( 33’ to 52”) 39. Difenser rod ( all size available ) 40. Drum big 41. Drum small 42. Drum plate b ig 43. Drum plate small 44. Escalator black 45. Escalator color set 46. Foot escalator 47. Front indicator 48. Front indicator round 49. Hydraulic shocker without spring 27” 50. Hydraulic shocker with spring 27” 51. Hydraulic shocker with spring 29” 52. Hydraulic shocker without spring 29” 53. Hydraulic shocker 31” ( loader special ) 54. Normal shocker 25” 55. Normal shocker 27” 56. Normal shocker 29” 57. Horn switch Meerut special ( all function in one hand ) 58. Front drum elevator I CAT 59. New model lock ( big one ) 60. Front axle 12mm 61. Front axle 15 mm 62. Front mudguard IRON 63. Front mudguard steel 64. Front mudguard plastic 65. Front horn single Chinese 66. Front horn single 67. Front horn double with crome 68. Front horn double normal quality 69. Front horn new model 70. Front rim 300-12 71. Front rim 400-12 72. Front rim 300-14 73. Front rim 90-90-12 74. Front drum without reading 75. Front drum with reading 76. Flasher with buzzer 77. Gucha 6/71 78. Gucha 6/73 79. Gucha 4/71 80. Gucha 6007 81. Headlight kaan new model 82. Headlight kaan old model 83. Front axle bearing 6302 84. Front axel bearing 6201 85. Handel bearing 32005 86. Handel bearing 30205 87. Handel bearing 88. Head light LED type 1 89. Head light LED type 2 90. Head light LED type 3 91. Head light LED type 4 92. Head light with cap 93. Head light with plane 94. Handel lock type 1 95. Handel lock type 2 96. Handel lock type 3 ( big one ) 97. Hand break 98. Hand break wire ( all size available ) 99. Central locking Chinese 100. Indicator switch ( left + right ) 101. Indicator switch color ( left + right ) 102. Loader kamani 12 kg with temper 103. Kamani 8 kg with temper 104. Kamani 8 kg normal 105. Kamani bush white 106. Kamani bush black 107. Cut out break 108. Katter pin 109. L ket bolt 110. Lock small 111. Lock medium 112. Lock big 113. Meter black with reading 114. Meter black without reading 115. Meter reading crome body 116. Meter without reading crome body 117. Digital meter type 1 118. Digital meter type 2 119. Digital meter type 3 120. Digital meter type 4 121. Meter wire 122. Break wire 123. Mandir ( yufeng model ) 124. Mandir ( all model ) 125. MCB 126. Nut front axle 127. Nut rear axel 128. Oil seal ( all size available ) 129. Rod big bhogli 130. Rod net 131. Roof cloth 132. Sides glass black 133. Sides glass crome 134. Heavy duty curtains with chain 135. Side curtains with chain normal 136. Censer 137. Censer plate 138. Sim big 139. Sim small 140. Star pin 141. Star set 142. T-set yufeng 143. T- set mayuri 144. T-set 30205 145. T- set 32005 146. Tyre 300-12 147. Tyre 300-14 148. Tyre 900-12 149. Tyre 400-12 150. Tube 300-12 151. Tube 300-14 152. Tube 900-12 153. Tube 400-12 154. T- chak nut ( top nut ) 155. T- chak nut ( down ) 156. Water proof wiring 157. Wiring normal 158. I CAT wiring all models 159. Wiring mini metro 160. White handle 161. Yellow box 162. U clip 163. U patti 164. Kamani jhula 165. Hanging handle normal 166. Hanging handle heavy duty 167. Wheel cap big 168. Wheel cap big one 169. Wheel cap normal 170. Wheel cap set of three ( audi model ) 171. Wheel cap appy 172. Break wire 173. Grip 174. All packing available 175. Centre glass 176. Back rim Chinese 400-12 177. Back rim Chinese 300-12 178. Back rim Chinese 300-14 179. T- cover Indian 180. T- cover Chinese 181. Foot escalator 182. Body color 183. Multi meter 184. Front gulla Indian 12mm 185. Front gulla Chinese 15mm 186. Meter garari 12mm 187. Meter garari iron 15mm 188. Rippit 189. Thimble 190. Charger 191. Charger Chinese 192. Charger manual 193. Charger automatic 194. Charger SMPS 195. Charger yufeng 196. Chimma rippt 197. Break paddle original 198. Break paddle Indian 199. Break paddle cover 200. Mat 201. Mating 202. Break paddle rubber 203. Kaan rubber 204. Back view mirror ( big ) 205. Back view mirror ( small ) 206. Shocker spring normal 207. Shocker spring heavy duty 208. Hanging handle special 209. Motor axel 1000 wt t 210. Moto axle 850 watt 211. Stud set 212. Break makhi 213. Shocker katori 214. Terminal battery 215. Head light bulb 216. Back indicator bulb 217. Battery pati set 218. Arm rest 219. F.M 220. Front glass witgh dafan 221. Wiper 222. Front glass motor 223. Butter fly 224. Jhaller 225. Mini metro horn switch 226. Fancy light LED 227. Bidding 3/2” 228. Bidding 7/4” 229. Central locking with FM
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    Electric Vehicles: ecosystem opportunities and challenges for manufacturers, policymakers and startups A growing number of manufacturers, consumers, government agencies, investors and urban developers believe that the electric vehicles (EVs) can have better outcomes for the industry and environment. Cleaner, safer and simpler electric vehicles now span categories ranging from two-wheelers and rickshaws to cars and mining vehicles, as well as fleets of buses and vans. The ‘glue’ connecting the mix includes startups in IoT (Internet of Things) and solar energy as well as mobile operators and blockchain players. It will not be individual corporate players who win the game, but whole ecosystems of partners and competitors coming together to define standards and roll out electric charging infrastructure. To be fair, EVs should not be seen as a magic wand or silver bullet solution for existing problems of global warming or pollution; they have their own sets of inherent problems too, as this article will explore. Large manufacturers Automobile giant Volkswagen has announced an investment of $24 billion to set up an all-electric line-up of cars, including infrastructure, by 2030. “We have to listen to the voice of reason, ” according to Mathias Mueller, Chairman of the Volkswagen Group. “This is not the future anymore, it is reality, ” he adds. This is a significant announcement coming from the group, which comprises Porsche, Lamborghini, Bugatti, Audi, Seat, and Skoda. Together, the group sells 10 million vehicles per year and is the largest car manufacturer in the world. In terms of market share, the company aims to sell over one in four electric vehicles by 2025, and an all-electric fleet by 2030. China is the world's largest market for electric vehicles, and manufacturers such as Toyota Motors have announced plans to produce electric vehicles in China; Nissan is reportedly preparing to release built-in-China electric vehicles this year itself. US company Tesla sold more than 10, 000 electric cars in China in 2017, according to industry estimates. China's largest electric carmaker BYD reportedly sold 113, 669 new energy vehicles in 2017. Automaker Volvo has announced that electric vehicles will account for 50 percent of all its sales by 2025. It plans to offer a hybrid variant of all its vehicles from 2019. Electric two-wheelers are being enhanced by the likes of Honda and Yamaha, as well as Mission R, Lightning LS-218, and Lito Sora. Indian players in this space include Ather Energy and Tork Motorcycles. Electric trucks are being developed by Workhorse, E-Force, Daimler, and BYD. Indian mobile phone company Micromax is also said to be in the electric battery game for the EV market. Infrastructure From housing blocks to parking areas, it is clear that electric charging facilities will need to be widely available for this sector to take off. A network of charging stations is needed to make EVs viable; this includes hybrid combinations of on-grid and off-grid energy sources such as solar chargers. Ambitious industry targets include EV infrastructure every 150 km in America and Europe. Charging stations for EVs can also be solar-powered. For example, the Great Plains Institute in Minnesota has received a grant from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Solar Energy Innovation Network. The plan is to create a roadmap for solar-plus-EV technology. Interestingly, the Indian Railways is planning on allocating space for electric vehicle charging stations at the parking lots of Delhi train stations to promote the use of green energy. Facilities to be provided include AC and DC chargers. Singapore launched its first electric vehicle sharing service in December 2017 with 80 cars and 30 charging stations. Their target is to have 1, 000 EVs, 500 charging locations, and 2, 000 charging points by 2020. The world’s largest electric car sharing service is reportedly Autolib in Paris; its subsidiary BlueSG runs the service in Singapore. Taxi and car-sharing companies Cities in countries like India face acute problems of energy insecurity and pollution, and industry-government alliances will play a key role in this regard. Low-interest funding of electric bus fleets for public transportation are some suggested measures. High-profile partnerships have been formed between taxi and car-sharing platforms and EV manufacturers. For example, Ola’s Mission: Electric initiative aims to put over one million electric vehicles on the road by 2021. It also partnered with Mahindra & Mahindra to build an electric mass mobility ecosystem in Nagpur. The target for 2018-2019 is to place over 10, 000 e-rickshaws and electric auto-rickshaws on the road. Other players to watch are Lithium Cabs, Zoomcar and SmartE in the e-rickshaw space. The Centre of Civil Society reports that around 29, 000 e-rickshaws were registered in New Delhi in the 2013-2017 period. Mahindra and Mahindra also has a tie-up with Uber to deploy EVs across several Indian cities. Initial target cities include New Delhi and Hyderabad. The arrangement includes competitive prices, attractive financing and insurance premiums, and comprehensive maintenance packages. Mahindra Electric and Zoomcar have partnered in an agreement for 100 e2oPlus electric cars to be offered on the Zoomcar platform in Delhi for self-drive rentals. The initiative has already been launched in Mysuru, Hyderabad, and Jaipur. Mahindra Electric’s portfolio also includes the eVerito sedan and the eSupro mini-van and panel vans. Software AI and ML will play a key role in manually driven cars and especially in driverless cars. Much of this will be coupled with IoT and smartphone interfaces and controllers. “Data sharing between devices, including cars, will become a reality, and securing the information becomes paramount, ” according to Mahesh Lingareddy, Chairman of Smartron, an IoT company. The “car OS” (operating system) will need to be developed with deep and wide industry alignment. Cars will be like tablets on wheels, jokes Christian Senger, head of e-mobility at Volkswagen AG. The level of control exerted by automation is graded in progressive levels, wherein Level 5 autonomy means the vehicle will take all decisions for the commuter. SAE International's On-Road Automated Vehicle Standards Committee has come up with five levels of automation in vehicle navigation. These include driver assistance, partial automation, conditional automation, high automation and full automation. Multimodal transport solutions are the need of the hour for urbanising India. Cloud-based solutions for such software platforms are being rolled out by Smatron, Kruzr, LightMetrics and Raksha SafeDrive. Policy interventions Some countries have set strict emission targets which will help spur the shift to electric. For example, in Europe, manufacturers must bring down vehicle emissions to 95 grams per km per vehicle by 2020. Sweden plans to have a fossil fuel-free transportation system by 2030. Canada has announced regulatory changes to make it easier for condominium owners to get approval from their condo corporations to install an electric vehicle charging system. Ontario’s Electric Vehicle Charging Incentive Program has provided incentives for the installation of thousands of home charging stations. There are an estimated 18, 000 electric vehicles on Ontario’s roads. “The transportation sector contributes the most greenhouse gas pollution in the province, so actions that encourage the use of low-carbon vehicles help move us towards a healthier, cleaner future, ” says Chris Ballard, Minister of Government and Consumer Services. Governments need to have clarity in their pronouncements on electric vehicle adoption. For example, in 2017 the Indian Ministry of State for Power and Renewable Energy set 2030 as the phasing-out date for fossil fuel vehicles, but later withdrew the target date. Electric vehicles will not only help reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but also reduce dependence upon oil imports, which raises all kinds of political risk in a volatile world. Other initiatives include Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid & ) Electric Vehicles (FAME), part of the National Electric Mobility Mission (NEMM) to promote fuel-efficient cars. Such schemes will be particularly important for fast-growing or large cities. Incentives will also be needed at industry and consumer level to spur the switch to electric vehicles. The Committee for Standardisation of the Protocol for Charging Infrastructure, set up by the Indian government, has recommended adopting uniform standards for electric vehicle charging stations, as well as options for electronic payment such as via smartphone. A study by the Society of Manufacturers of Electric Vehicles (SMEV) shows Gujarat, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Maharashtra as the top five states in EV sales. Citizen role Citizens will also have to play a consistent role in switching their driving, commuting and vehicle ownership attitudes. Unfortunately, as disposable income increases in emerging economies, there is also an aspirational rise in demand for self-driven vehicles rather than public transport. Today, 19 out of the 35 most polluted cities in the world are in India, according to BIS Research. More than half the pollution in densely-populated urban areas is vehicular. As of 2016, there were 229 million vehicles on Indian roads. Citizens will need to play a more vocal role in switching to electric vehicles or using more public transport. Startups The EV market is attracting a fair share of startups as well. For example, e-rickshaw company SmartE aims to get over 100, 000 e-rickshaws on the road by 2022. Founded by Goldie Srivastava in 2014, its initial target is last-mile connectivity for the public transport system in the Delhi-NCR region. Partners for the company include Goenka Electric Company and Kinetic Green, with vehicles priced at around Rs 1.5 lakh each. The company claims to move over 40, 000 commuters on a daily basis, and now has over 650 vehicles in operation. Charging models are centralised as well as de-centralised (swapping of batteries). Care has also been taken to ensure passenger safety via measures like avoiding over-crowding of vehicles. Targets for 2022 are three billion rides and 100, 000 jobs for vehicle operators. The company has already raised Series A funding of around $5million from a PE fund based out of Singapore. Hyderabad-based Gayam Motor Works manufactures electric three-wheelers and electric bicycles. Its setup allows e-vehicle owners to swap drained batteries with fully charged ones to eliminate charge-time waiting. For an electric rickshaw, a single battery charge is estimated to run for 110-150 km. The level of battery power remaining is updated to a cloud application, which gives notifications along with the location for the nearest swapping station. The company’s clientele includes Uber in Singapore, Hong Kong, and the US, as well as BigBasket, Ekart, Swiggy, and the governments of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in India. Instead of lead-acid battery technology, lithium-ion batteries are used. The company initially made vehicles for the Asian Development Bank-funded “E-trike project” for electric vehicles in the Philippines. Gurgaon-based EV startup Twenty Two Motors has raised $1.6 million in pre-Series A funding from investors, including Haryana Industries. Its offerings include two-wheeler lithium-ion battery packs, battery management systems (BMS), and smart electronics. IoT, analytics and AI will be leveraged to determine users' ride behaviour. Other two-wheeler players in the Indian market include Mahindra E20 and GenZe, Hero RNT Diesel Hybrid Scooter, Hero Splendor iSmart, Hero Leap, TVS Qube, and Hyosung ST-E3 EVA. Reva founder Chetan Maini has now set up SunMobility, a startup which will set up EV infrastructure across India. The road ahead Though hurdles such as long charging times, short travel ranges, and heavy batteries remain, they are being addressed by a slew of innovators. New companies such as Rimac, Vanda, Nio, and Genovation have joined market leaders like Porsche, Aston Martin, and Tesla in creating the next generation of electric vehicles. The road ahead for electric vehicles is literally in the sky as well: many aeronautical companies are working on all-electric planes, and not just hybrid transitional models. Alliances have been formed between industry giants Airbus and Boeing and startups like Zunum Aero and Wright Electric. The innovative eRoadArlanda initiative in Sweden involves a stretch of road that recharges electric vehicles as they drive on it. Charging will be via an electrified rail mounted into the ground. Challenges arise in safety of electric charge and in costs of installation, as well as operations during conditions of fast-moving traffic. Emerging technologies like blockchain could also help to track the sourcing of rare minerals used to make EV components, and ensure that ethical sourcing is practiced. These include nickel and cobalt, some of which is mined in conflict areas. It will help countries benchmark their manufacturing and roll out initiatives with those of progressive regions such as Scandinavia and East Asia. Government and industry in these regions are forging stronger partnerships for domestic and international growth of electric vehicles. Cities to watch for electric-powered public transport are Shenzhen in China, where most of the 16, 000 vehicles are reportedly electric. For countries like India to match East Asia, it will need significant manufacturing prowess for key components, ranging from battery cells and semi-conductor modules to micro-processors and controllers. This extends from prototyping to large-scale low-cost manufacturing. However, opportunities also exist in design and IP, and not just in the OEM sector. The big shift to electric and modular design vehicles disrupt and democratise the entire automotive value chain from the bottom to the very top, according to Neeraj Kumar Singal, Director at Lightyear Infratech & Semco Group. Where an Internal Combustion (IC) Engine car has around 10, 000 moving parts, an average EV has around 20. In sum, with all the convoluted parts gone and availability of major components in the world market, new challenger startups will emerge on a larger scale, according to Singal. Many vehicle manufacturers could become simple assemblers of vehicles rather than complex engineering companies.
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